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قديم 29-06-2010, 10:06 PM   #1
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تاريخ التسجيل: 25 / 11 / 2005
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بو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدى
افتراضي بحث عن كرة القدم ( Soccer Ball )

Abstract :-



A football is a ball used to play one of the various sports known as football. In the distant past, crude balls such as inflated pigs' bladders were used, but balls are now designed by teams of engineers to exacting specifications. Each code of football uses a different ball, though they all belong to one of two different basic shapes:

1. a sphere: used in Association football (also called soccer in some countries) and Gaelic football

2. a prolate spheroid ('egg-shaped')

* either with rounded ends: used in rugby league football, rugby union football and Australian football

* or with more pointed ends: used in American football and Canadian football



contents
Abstract and contents
introduction ……………………1

History of Soccer ball ………….2

Soccer Ball Construction ……....3

Covers…………………………...4

Panels……………………………5

Development ……………………6

Conclusions………………………7

التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة بو هبه ; 29-06-2010 الساعة 10:20 PM
بو هبه غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 29-06-2010, 10:20 PM   #2
بو هبه
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تاريخ التسجيل: 25 / 11 / 2005
الدولة: قطر
الجنس:    
المشاركات: 8,609
معدل تقييم المستوى: 772
بو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدى
افتراضي رد: بحث عن كرة القدم ( Soccer Ball )

1-introduction :-


Figure1: football Player[1].
Soccer is a game played by two teams on a rectangular field, with the object of driving the ball into the opponent's goal. The ball is controlled and advanced primarily by using the feet; only goalkeepers are allowed to handle the ball. All that is needed to play is an area of open space and a ball. Much of the world's soccer is played informally on patches of ground, without field marking or real goals. In many places, the game is played barefoot using rolled-up rags or newspapers as a ball. Soccer is the world's most popular sport, played by men and women of all ages, with millions of fans throughout the world. A chief reason for soccer's vast popularity is that it has proved to be among the most accessible and adaptable of the world's sports.

Outside the United States, the game is commonly called football and officially association football. The word soccer is a slang corruption of the abbreviation “assoc.” [1].
2-History:-
The modern history of the official soccer ball begins in the mid 1800s when Charles Goodyear designed and built the first vulcanized rubber soccer balls. [3] Soon after that, in 1863, the first rules of soccer were established by the English Football Association but there was no description on the ball size until 1872 when it was decided that the ball "must be spherical with a circumference of 27 to 28 inches" (68.6 cm to 71.1 cm). This rule still applies for the football official matches played today all over the world. The early rules specified a weight of 13 to 15 oz which was however changed in 1937 to the current accepted weight, 14-16 oz. At the same time, the association agreed that the official soccer ball must be covered in leather or any approved material.
A direct consequence of establishing the laws of the game by the English Football Association was the mass production of soccer balls. The first two companies that started producing football balls in larger quantities were Mitre and Thomlinson from Glasgow. They produced balls made of leather because they wanted to
produce good quality soccer balls that will retain their form after use. On the other hand, they preferred stitching the panels since that means better quality and better and longer resistance in what the ball concerns. The best covers which resulted in very expensive soccer balls were the ones made from the rump of a cow. By the 1900s, the official balls were produced with rubber bladders which were able to withstand heavier pressure.
Until the 1950s the official balls used during football matches had dark colors due to the color of the leather.
In 1951 a white ball was first permitted to help spectators see the ball easier with the advent of floodlights. Even if they were used earlier in unofficial games, the official soccer balls were permitted only in the mid 1900s. [2].

3-Ball Construction:-

The four main components of a soccer ball are the cover, the stitching, the lining and the bladder. Understanding these components and their options will help you in choosing the perfect ball to meet your playing and quality needs. [3].



4-Covers :-

The surface of soccer balls or coverings are made up from synthetic leather and not full grain leather (as used in the past) because leather has a tendency to absorb water causing the ball to become very heavy. Synthetic leather is typically made from PU (polyurethane)
and PVC (poly vinyl chloride). [3].




Figure3: Surface of ball [3].

There are many variations of synthetic leather used in the construction of soccer balls. They range from AI-2000, Japanese Teijin Cordley, Microfiber, English Porvair, Korean Ducksung, Leather Art Pakistan Synthetic Leather, and PVC (poly vinyl chloride). Best soccer balls used in competition and by professionals are produced by using AI-2000, Cordley, Ducksung, Mircofiber or other types of PU synthetic leather. Promotional soccer balls or practice balls are usually constructed with Polyvinyl Chloride(PVC) or rubber (molded or stitched) covers.
Some indoor soccer ball covers are made with a felt material similar to what is used on a tennis ball. [3].
بو هبه غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 29-06-2010, 10:26 PM   #3
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تاريخ التسجيل: 25 / 11 / 2005
الدولة: قطر
الجنس:    
المشاركات: 8,609
معدل تقييم المستوى: 772
بو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدى
افتراضي رد: بحث عن كرة القدم ( Soccer Ball )


5-Panels :-

The number of panels -- the different segments that make up the outside covering of the ball -- varies for each design.
A 32-panel ball is the most common and is the type used in most professional matches. The soccer ball is essentially a Buckminster Ball consisting of 20 hexagonal (six sided) and 12 pentagonal (five sided) surfaces. Also known as a truncated icosahedron except that it is more spherical, because the panels bulge due to the pressure of the air inside.




Figure4: panels show [3].
When they are sewn together and inflated they make a near perfect sphere.


Other traditional designs are 18 and 26-panel constructions, used in various professional leagues, including Major League Soccer (until 2002), Scottish and English leagues.
Fewer panels generally means the ball can be curved more when kicked because of less stability to the cover.




Panels can be either stitched, glued or thermally molded together:

Stitched :


The highest quality balls are stitched with a polyester or similar thread. 5-ply twisted polyester cord is the material of choice in stitching together a soccer ball. Hand sewn balls have tighter and stronger seams. Kevlar® reinforced polyester stitching is also used on some balls.
High-end balls are hand-stitched, while most mid-priced balls are machine-stitched.

Glued :

Lower-end, practice balls generally have the panels glued together onto the lining.
These offer a harder feel and are generally less expensive than stitched balls.
Thermally Molded - The new World Cup 2006 Teamgeist Ball and the Roteiro ball have panels that are thermally molded together. [3].



6-Development :-

The old soccer balls had been used during the early discovery of the sport soccer. Balls are made similar to the size of a pig's bladder. Because of its irregular size and form, the ball is quite difficult to control. No matter how skillful the player, it leads to undesirable directions because of its irregular shape.


Because of this condition of the ball, Charles Goodyear decided to create a much better ball to address the problem of early balls. Charles built the first patented ball made of rubber in 1855 which was vulcanized to form the required shape. This ball is now on display at the National Soccer Hall of Fame.


During 1863, the English Football Association gathered and created the Laws of the Game but there is no standardized rule on the description of the ball. In 1872, the association decided to include the official size and shape of the ball to be used in professional soccer.
بو هبه غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 29-06-2010, 10:27 PM   #4
بو هبه
عضوية فاخرة
 
الصورة الرمزية بو هبه
 
تاريخ التسجيل: 25 / 11 / 2005
الدولة: قطر
الجنس:    
المشاركات: 8,609
معدل تقييم المستوى: 772
بو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدىبو هبه من أهم أعضاء المنتدى
افتراضي رد: بحث عن كرة القدم ( Soccer Ball )

7-Conclusions:-

Generally around the world today the word "football" and direct translations as
such (such as Spanish fútbol and German Fußball/Fussball) is in widespread use as
the name for association football. In Francophone Quebec Soccer is the most
popular in the world, the most exciting and enthusiasm among all types of sports.


And more than enthusiasm by The game is played on a rectangular grass or
artificial turf field, with a goal in the centre of each of the short ends The object of
the game is to score by driving the ball into the opposing goal.
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